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Ayana can also be understood as passage of Sun to the North and South of the equator.Karkataka Sankramana marks the beginning of Dakshinayana and Makara Sankramana marks the beginning of Uttarayana.[Some say: Dakshinayana and Uttharayanas are now commencing on June 21 and December 22 and not on the days of Karkataka / Makara Sankramana. Further, the beginning day of Ayana is moving backwards by about 1 day for every 72 years.]Around June 21 and December 22, Karkayana and Makarayana occur. These are sankramanas as per Sayana reckoning. As the current value of Ayanamsha is about 22 1/20, Sayana sankramanas are occurring about 23 days earlier than the Nirayana ones. With increasing value of Ayanamsha, Sayana sankramanas will move backwards by about a day every 70 years.Other Punya KaalasVishuvath Punya kaalas: Mesha and Thula Sankramanas Vishnupada Punya kaalas: Vrushabha, Simha, Vrushchika and Kumbha Sankramanas.Shadashiti Punya kaalas: Mithuna, Kanya, Dhanus and Meena Sankramanas.Punya kaalas / Parva kaalas VarjyaGenerally, no auspicious events are to be celebrated during 16 ghatis before the Punya kaala and 16 ghatis thereafter (1 ghati = 24 minutes), roughly 6 ½ hours on either side.
Punya kaalas are also referred as Parva kaalas.However, for the Dakshinayana / Uttharayana and Vishuvath Punya kaalas, “Pakshini” should be observed. Pakshini means, two nights and a day or two days and a night depending on whether the Punya kaala occurs during day or night (middle of the Pakshini period). Entire Pakshini should be avoided for auspicious events.Vakya SankramanaSages have declared in one sentence (Vakya) the specific time duration between all the Sankramanas (between Mesha and Vrushabha, Vrushabha and Mithuna, etc.) in a year. Sankramanas determined based on this Vakya (sentence) is called Vakya sankramana.Soorya Siddhantha and Drigganitha sankramanas are determined based on the Soorya Siddhantha and drigganitha systems of calculations of the movement of Sun.